[收藏!考研英语易混词汇!]1.compel,presscompel"强迫…

??1、abide, adhere, conform, comply“遵守”。abide v.后接by表示“遵守,同意”。i will abide by the director’ decision.我将遵从主任的决定。adhere v.后接to表示“遵守”。(当然adhere一词的其它意思如“坚持;粘附”也经常被考到。)car drivers must adhere to the rules of driving.汽车司机必须遵守驾驶规则。conform v.后接to表示“遵守,符合”。all individuals are required to conform to the laws made by their governments.每个人都应该遵守政府制订的法律。comply v.后接with表示“遵守,服从”,用于正式的场合。our company complies with governmental regulations on paying taxes.我们公司遵守政府有关纳税的规定。

2、abnormal, uncommon, disordered “反常的”abnormal a.不正常的,反常的(但并非罕见),指行为或现象(如气候)的异常。his body temperature has been abnormal for 3 days, the highest point reaching 40.5 degree centigrade.他的体温三天来一直都不正常,最高的时候达到40.5摄氏度。(尽管身体发烧不正常,但生活中也时有发生。)uncommon a.罕见的,不平常的,指很少经历或很少见到的状况;特别的,出色的。hurricanes are uncommon in england.飓风在英国非常罕见。that is uncommon instant coffee; it tastes great! 那速溶咖啡质量上乘,味道好极了!disordered a.混乱的,杂乱的;(精神或身体)有病的。we couldn’t understand her disordered presentation.我们听不明白她条理不清的陈述。

3、abolish, cancel, eliminate, dispose, erase, exclude, extinguish都有“取消,除掉”的意思。abolish v.指对法律、习俗、制度的废除;完全破坏。the government abolished the tax on alcohol.政府取消了酒税。cancel v.对预先安排的某种活动(如旅行、计划、会议等)的取消;删去(字、句)。the meeting has been cancelled because of the flu.会议由于流感而取消了。eliminate v.指消除、淘汰已经存在但是现在不需要的东西。the losing team was eliminated from further competition.失利的那个队被淘汰了,不能参加下一阶段的比赛。the doctor helped him eliminate toxins from the intestine.医生帮助他排出肠中毒素。dispose v.处理,处置;表示“除掉、扔掉”时常与of连用。(这一点需要注意。)

after your picnic, please dispose of the litter.野餐后请清除掉垃圾。erase v.除去,擦掉,指有意识地除去字迹、声音等。i erased the music on the tape before recording on the tape again.我在往磁带上录音之前先消掉了上面的音乐。

exclude v.排斥;排除,不包括在内,与include互为反义词。the restaurant excludes anyone who is not properly dressed from entering.衣冠不整者不得进入该餐馆。

extinguish v.熄灭,扑灭(火);使沉默,使暗淡。firefighters extinguished a big fire.消防队员扑灭了大火。

4、abstract, digest, outline, summary“要点,摘要”

abstract n.概要,摘要,尤其指对学术论文或法律论据作的简述。i have read the abstract of his book.我已经读了他书的概要。

digest n. (篇幅较长的)摘要,文摘,它是对原文的浓缩而不是对原文的简单解释,浓缩后仍保持原文的顺序、重点和风格。reader’s digest《读者文摘》

outline n.要点,大纲,概要。she made an outline of ideas she wanted to present in her talk.她把自己要谈的想法列了一个提纲。

summary n.总结,摘要,指用寥寥数语概括文章或者讲话的要点,不考虑原文的风格。

5、absurd, ridiculous, silly都有“愚蠢,可笑”的意思。absurd a.荒谬的,可笑的,指因不符合常识、违反真理或不合逻辑而令人发笑。there was an absurd idea that the earth was flat and motionless.过去曾经有一种荒谬的观点认为地球呈扁平状而且静止不动。

ridiculous a.荒唐可笑的,指因为愚昧无知而令人发笑并成为笑柄,含有蔑视成分。it is ridiculous to judge a foreign culture only by its food.仅仅根据一个国家的饮食来评价该国家的文化是荒唐可笑的。

silly a.愚蠢的,傻的,指由于单纯或者头脑简单而显得愚蠢。a silly little boy傻小子

6、abundant, plentiful这两个形容词都有“充足的”之意。

abundant a. (数量)充足的,常用于人、物产、资源、雨量等,含有“过多”之意。oil is in abundant supply in this country.这个国家石油供应十分充裕。

plentiful a.丰富的,充足的,常用于食物、收获、财产等,不能用于时间、空间、思想等方面。eggs are plentiful at this moment.现在鸡蛋很多。

7、accent, tone, dialect这三个名词意思相近,容易混淆。

accent n.口音,指某一地区语言的发音特征;重音。he speaks english with a spanish accent.他讲英语带有西班牙口音。

tone n.语气,音调,指说话人的口气或声音的高低、轻重等。he speaks to his baby in soft tones.他用柔和的语调和他的婴儿说话。

dialect n.方言,土语,地方话,指一个地区人们所使用的语言。the yorkshire dialect约克郡方言the sichuan dialect8、access, assess这两个词为一组“形近易混词”。

access n.接近,进入。

the people living in these apartments have free access to that swimming pool.住在这些公寓里的人可以免费地进入游泳池。

assess v.评估(财产,价值)。i assessed how much it would cost to build a new apartment.我评估了一下建一套新的公寓要多少钱。

9、accommodate, afford, furnish都有“提供”的意思。

accommodate v.提供住宿、房间;适应,迎合,迁就。this hotel can accommodate up to 500 guests.这家饭店可供500位来宾住宿。the company accommodated the customer’s wish and sent the delivery overnight.公司满足了顾客的愿望,连夜将货物发了出去。

afford v.负担,支付;当“提供”讲时,多用于指抽象事物的提供。we can’t afford that expensive sports car.我们买不起那辆昂贵的跑车。the tall building affords a beautiful view of the ocean.从这幢高楼上可以看到大海的美丽景致。

furnish v.指提供生活或某种用途所需要的东西。reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge, it is thinking that makes what we read ours.阅读虽然为我们的思想提供了各种知识,然而只有思考才能将我们读到的内容变成自己的东西。10、accomplishment, attainment, achievement“成就”

accomplishment n.成功,成就;才艺,修养。climbing that high mountain was an accomplishment for the hikers.对于登山运动员来说,爬上了那座山就是成功。being able to paint well is just one of her accomplishments. 画画得好只是她的许多才能之一。attainment n.指学识和造诣(常用作复数);达到,到达。a scholar of the highest attainments造诣极高的学者

achievement n.可指抽象的“成就”,或具体的“成绩”,与accomplishment是同义词。

11、accuse,charge“控诉,指控”之意,所搭配的介词不同。

accuse v.指控,控诉,与介词of连用。the police accused him of theft.警察指控他犯有盗窃罪。

charge v.可以指因为小错而受的责备,也指因违法而受到控告,与介词with连用。the police charged him with murder.警察指控他犯了谋杀罪。12、acquire,attain, obtain, gain, earn, achieve, secure都有”获得,取得”的意思,在考研屡次出现。acquire v.多指经过努力逐步获得才能、知识、习惯等,也可用于对财物等的获得,该词强调”一经获得就会长期持有”的含义。it is through learning that the individual acquires many habitual ways of reacting to situations.正是通过学习,个人才得以获得应付各种情况的习惯做法。

attain v.指经过不懈的努力获得未曾预料到的结果;也可指达到某一目标。the salesperson attained his sales goal for the month.这名销售员完成了当月的销售目标。obtain v.获得,买到,用于正式语体中。he obtained the property with a bank loan.他通过向银行贷款买下了那份房产。

gain v.指通过较大努力获得某种利益或好处;亦可指军事上的武力夺取等。an investor gains by buying stocks that go up in value.投资者通过所买股票价格上涨而得利润。

earn v.挣得,赢得,指因工作等而得到报酬或待遇。how much do you earn a week? 你一星期挣多少钱?

achieve v.得到,获得,多指成就、目标、幸福的取得。the movie star achieved success and wealth.这个影星取得了成功和财富。

secure v.得到;把……拿到手,含有肯定占有难以得到的东西之意;使安全,保卫;作形容词比较常见,意为”安全的”。a million signatures have been secured.已征集到了100万人的签名。he secured the office before leaving it for the night.他晚上离开前锁好了办公室的门窗。13、acute,critical, crucial, urgent”严重的,重要的”意思。acute a.剧烈的,严重的;急性的(病)。an acute lack of food brought hunger to the iraqi people.食品严重缺乏,伊拉克人民正在忍饥挨饿。

critical a.意为”关键的”,表示处于极度缺乏的状态或事件的转折点,与crucial相似。与crucial的区别在于它对缺乏的或危急的程度有更准确的衡量;还指”批判性的,分析性的”。it is critical that you study hard for the exam or you will fail it.为了考好你必须用功学习,则你会不及格的。

crucial a.意为”决定性的,紧要关头的,至关重要的”,最为笼统,适用于上述两种情况。improved consumer confidence is crucial to an economic recovery.消费者信心的增强对经济的复苏是至关重要的。

urgent a.意为”紧迫的,急迫的,紧要的”,它不强调所指的问题是最重要的,仅强调”紧急的”状态。we have an urgent need for help; we are running out of water.我们急需要帮助,我们的水就快要用光了。14、adjust,regulate, rectify, amend, convert, alter, modify, transform, vary都含有”调整、改变”的意思。adjust v.一般指很小的改变或技术性的调整;修理。i adjusted the air conditioner to stay cool.我调节了空调以保持凉爽。regulate v.指根据规定或需要对某物(机器、钟表等)进行调整或调节,使之准确工作或运行;多含有”控制”之意。lights are used to regulate the traffic.红绿灯被用来管制交通。

rectify v.纠正,校正(错误、文章、合同等)。he rectified the mistake in the contract by changing its wording.他通过改变措辞纠正了合同里的错误。

amend v. (正式用语)指修改文件、法律、规范等。the politicians amended the law to provide more jobs.政治家们修正了这项法律以提供更多的就业。

convert v.改变某事物的形式或用途,还可以指改变信仰尤其是宗教信仰。britain converted to a decimal currency system in 1971.英国于1971年改用十进制货币体系。he’s converted to catholicism.他已经皈依天主教。

alter v.使事物在外观、性质、用途等方面稍作改变。the tailor altered the waistband on my pants because it was too tight.裁缝修改了我的裤腰因为它太紧了。

modify v.改变,修改,以使某物更趋完善,还可以用来表示态度、脾气、意见变得温和。he was loud and angry, and his friends told him to modify his behavior.他粗声大气,脾气暴躁;朋友们告诉他要改变自己的举止。

transform v.指彻底、深远的改变,这种变化完全改变了外观或特性,使被改变的对象脱胎换骨。remodeling transformed an old, dark house into a cheerful one.重新装修使这所陈旧昏暗的房子变得赏心悦目。

vary v.强调没有一定规则、陆续的变化或差异。airfares vary from one airline to another.航空公司的机票价格各不相同。15、admit,confess, concede这几个动词都有”承认”的意思。

admit v.指由于说服、再三追问而”承认”某一事实或过错。i admit that you have a point.我承认你有理。

confess v.供认(罪行、过错等),含有”坦白、招认”的意思。he confessed his crimes to the judge.他向法官供认了他的罪行。

concede v.指曾想隐瞒或不愿意承认某一错误,但由于证据确凿而不得不勉强承认,还可以指”以退为进”的承认。the man who caused the accident finally conceded to the police that he had done it.造成这次交通事故的人最终向警察承认他是肇事人。16、affiliate,link, attach, append都有”附加”的意思。

affiliate v.加入,成为……一部分。an affiliated middle school一所附属中学

link v.将人或物连接起来。the crowd linked arms to form a barrier.群众臂挽着臂组成人墙。

attach v.将某物系在、贴在、附在另一物上。i attached a note to my report with a paper clip.我用别针将一张字条别在报告的后面。append v.增加,附加(与attach的意思比较接近)。the lawyer appended two more pages to the contract.律师在合同后又附加了两页。17、affirm,assert, allege, claim, announce, proclaim这一组动词都有”声称”的意思。affirm v.坚信不疑地肯定或宣称,是deny的反义词。he affirmed his love for her.他发誓爱她。assert v.指不管事实如何,主观自信地宣称,或者清楚有力地坚持某个情况为事实。she asserted that she was innocent .她宣称自己是无辜的。allege v.在无真凭实据的情况下宣称、断定。the suspect alleged that he had not been in the neighborhood at the time of the crime.嫌疑犯声称案发时他不在现场。

claim v.要求,声称,断言。多指根据某种规定提出的要求或主张。they claim that if more people rode bicycles to go to work there would be fewer automobiles in the downtown section of the city.他们生成如果有更多的人骑自行车上班的话,闹市区的汽车就会有所减少。announce v.宣布,宣告。多指首次当众正式宣布某一主张或态度,常常带有预告的意味。the invention of the printing press announced the diffusion of knowledge.印刷术的发明宣告了知识普及时代的来临。proclaim v.宣布;宣告(成立)。指经过深思熟虑后向大众宣布一个明确的决定或判断,尤其指重大事件的宣布,多用于官方场合。the president proclaimed an emergency when the war came.当战争来临的时候总统宣布进入紧急状态。18、aggravate,reinforce, increase, strengthen, intensify这一组动词都有”加强”的意思。aggravate v.加重(负担、罪行、病情等),使之恶化。i hurt my foot, then aggravated it by trying to walk too soon.我的脚受伤了,而过早的下地走路又加重了伤情。reinforce v.增援,一般用于军队或警察的行动;(添材料等)加固。a police officer saw three thieves robbing a bank and radioed to reinforce him.一位警察看到三个盗贼抢劫银行,用无线电话要求增援。increase v.指数量上的增加。the number of people has been increased.人数增加了。strengthen v.加强,巩固,增强,相当于to become stronger。exercising every day strengthens the heart.每天锻炼可以提高心脏的功能。competition,they believe, strengthens the national character rather than corrupt it.人们认为竞争加强了民族性而不是破坏了它。intensify v.使变得更强烈、剧烈,加剧,相当于to become more intense or intensive。intensify colors加深色彩intensify hatred加深仇恨19、alert,cautious, considerate都表示”小心的,谨慎的”。alert a.警惕的,留神的。the hostess remained standing, alert to every guests’ drinking need.女主人一直站在旁边,时刻准备给大家斟酒。cautious a.细心的,谨慎的。he has a cautious attitude about spending money.在花钱的问题上他态度谨慎。

considerate a.关心他人的,体贴的。he is always considerate of others; he is kind and sympathetic.他总是很体谅他人,并且慈祥而富有同情心。20、alive,live, living, lively 这一组形容词都跟”活”有关。

alive a.活着的,有活力的,常作表语,作定语时必须后置。after the accident, he was barely alive.交通事故后,他奄奄一息。  

all man alive所有活着的人live a.活的,有活力的,现场直播的,we watched the live broadcast of the opera on tv.我们通过电视观看了这部歌剧的实况。living a.活着的,作定语可前可后,可修饰人也可修饰物。who is the world’s greatest living artist?谁是现在还健在的世界上最伟大的艺术家?  

living room起居室lively a.活泼的,栩栩如生的。she is a lively young girl, always laughing and doing things.她是个活泼可爱的小姑娘,总是欢声笑语忙个不停。

21、alleviate, diminish, reduce, decrease, decline这一组动词都有”减少,减轻”的意思。alleviate v.在痛苦方面的减轻,缓和the painkiller alleviated the pain.止疼药减缓了疼痛。

diminish v.指因为不断消耗,在数量方面缓慢减少,也指在素质或者价值的下降。the supply of oil has diminished because of the war.由于战争石油的供应减少了。reduce v.指人为地使某物在数量或重量方面的减少或降低。he reduced the amount of money they could spend.他缩减了他们的开销。decrease v.指数量上的减少;力量或者强度的减弱。the population decreased a lot last year.去年人口数量急剧下降。

decline v. (数目、价格、比率)下降;谢绝,婉言推辞;衰退,衰落。last year, the crime rate in chicago has sharply declined.去年芝加哥的犯罪率明显下降。he declined our invitation to dinner.他婉拒了我们请他吃饭的邀请。22、allocate, separate, detach, divide都有”分开”的意思。allocate v.分配,把……拨给。the city government allocated money for schools and the police in this year’s budget.市政府在今年的预算中给学校和警察部门分配了资金。separate v.人为地分开,使隔离开。we separated the salad forks from the dinner forks.我们把沙拉叉与餐叉分隔开。detach v.拆开组合的物体;远离,疏远。we need a carpenter to detach this bookshelf from the wall.我们需要一名木匠将书架从墙上拆下来。divide v.指将整体分为若干个部分。the huge corporation divided into smaller companies.这家特大公司分成一些较小的公司。

23、ambiguous, obscure, vague, unclear, dim”模糊”ambiguous a.意义含糊的,有歧义的,指因字、词、句有歧义而使人感到模糊不清、难以理解和把握。his ambiguous directions confused us; we did not know which of the two roads to take.他的模棱两可的指导使我们很迷惑以至于我们不知道该走哪条路了。obscure a.用于表达因光线不足而使人看不清楚。该词的引申意义可以表示语法、文字、记忆等因复杂、深奥、模棱两可而使人看不懂和无法理解。

the poetry of ezra pound is sometimes difficult to understand because it contains so many obscure references.艾兹拉·庞德的诗有时候难以理解,因为诗歌中含有许多令人费解的典故。vague a.含混的,不清楚的,多用于比喻意义,用来表示因逻辑关系不清、言辞笼统而导致的意义不清楚,该词也可表示轮廓形状的不清楚和模糊。he has some vague ideas about what to do, but nothing specific.他大概知道他要做什么,但没有具体的计划。unclear a.指句意、字迹不清楚,使人难以看懂;不肯定的。unclear writing is difficult to understand.模糊的字迹使人难以辨认。it is unclear whether the economy will get better.经济是否好转仍不明朗。dim a.光线暗淡的,看不清的;记忆力模糊的;不大可能的。don’t work in dim light.不要在昏暗的光线下工作。his changes of recovery from illness are dim.他康复的可能性十分渺茫。24、amplify, enlarge, stretch, magnify, reinforce, expandamplify v.扩大,增加,尤其指通过增强电压或电流使声音扩大;补充叙述(故事、事件等)。we must ask you to amplify your statement.我们得请你对你的说法作进一步的说明。enlarge v.扩大,多指具体物品如相片的放大。enlarge photograph放大照片enlarge a house扩建房屋

stretch v. (有弹性地)伸展,延伸,并有可能超过限度;伸长、伸出(身体某部位)并绷紧肌肉(尤指在放松后或为了够着某物)。the pullover stretched after i had worn it a few times.这件套头毛衣我穿了几次之后就撑大了。having finished their morning work, the clerks stood up behind their desks, stretching themselves.完成了早间工作之后,职员们站到桌子后面伸伸懒腰。

magnify v.放大,指用透镜或显微镜使物体看上去大一些。his eyeglasses magnify words so he can read them.他借助眼睛把字放大以便能够阅读。reinforce v.增援,加固。expand v.指范围、体积的扩大、增大,也可以指内容细节的充实。the balloon expanded, then exploded.气球先是膨胀,然后就爆破了。25、anger, fury, indignation, resentment”愤怒、生气”anger n.气愤,生气,是一般用语。

after their argument, he expressed his anger by punching the other man in the face.争吵之后,他一拳打在那个人的脸上以发泄怒气。fury n.暴怒,大怒,程度较anger要强。indignation n.义愤,尤其指出于道义上的激愤。general indignation at the sudden steep rise in bus fares公共汽车票价突然猛增激起的公愤resentment n.愤恨,怨恨,不满,是正式用语,尤指由于受侮辱或自尊心受到伤害后而产生的愤慨。there was a feeling of resentment in the office after everyone’s pay was lowered.大家的工资降低后,办公室里怨声载道。26、apparent, evident, manifest, obvious, distinct这一组形容词都有”明显的”之意。apparent a.明显的,显而易见的,尤指容易观察或认识到的事物。he is very unhappy, and it is apparent that he wants to leave now.他很不高兴,显然他现在想走了。evident a.明白的,明显的,与apparent基本同意,多用于推理或由事实证明的事物。it is evident that he is guilty; his fingerprints were found at the crime scene.显然他是有罪的,在犯罪现场发现了他的指纹。manifest a.清楚的,明显的,多指根据外部特征或迹象便能看出或了解其意义,常作表语。her ability is manifest, but she is not attractive.她才能出众,但长相并不动人。obvious a.明显的,显而易见的,含有无可辩白,不需证明之意。

it is obvious that that woman has had too much to drink.很显然,那个妇女酒喝的太多了。distinct a.清楚的,明显的;不同的,独特的。修饰性质明显不同的东西。medical care has made a distinct improvement in his health.治疗已使他的健康有了明显的好转。27、applaud, clap, commend, praiseapplaud v.鼓掌,赞扬,指因精湛表演或某种行为得到别人的赞许,大声叫好或热烈鼓掌。the boss applauded my efforts by praising my work.老板表扬了我的工作,对我的努力表示赞许。clap v.拍打,其用法是clap one’s hand=applaud,不能说applaud one’s hands。clap sb.为某人鼓掌,clap sth.拍打某物commend v.为正式用词,用于对具体功绩或成就表示嘉奖,通常指上级对下级、长辈对晚辈的赞赏。

the teacher commended the student for doing well on the exam.老师表扬学生们的考试成绩优异。praise v.为一般用词,用于对某人的优秀品质表示钦佩羡慕;赞颂,赞美。a supervisor

praised the employee for her good work.一位主管称赞这位员工的工作做得不错。survivors of the crash praised god for saving them.坠机事件的幸存者赞颂上帝使他们得救。28、area, district, region, vicinity, zone有”区域”的意思。area n.泛指面积较大的地区;面积;专业领域。the new york area has high rents.纽约地区房租很高。district n.行政区划的小范围地区。如xicheng district西城区region n.行政区划上更大的地区,如”自治区”;身体部位。the northeast region of the usa includes new york and the six new england states.美国东北部包括纽约和新英格兰地区的那六个州。vicinity n.周围地区,附近地区。the police were alerted that the escaped criminal might be in the vicinity.警察都十分警惕因为逃跑的罪犯就藏在附近地区。zone n.指特定的地方、地带。

the city passed a law to create a business zone on some empty land.市政府通过法律,在一些空地上开辟商业区。29、assembly, conference, congress, rally, seminar, session, summit, symposium都表示”会议”的意思。assembly n.集合,集会。the assembly of students takes place in the auditorium.学生们在大礼堂举行集会。conference n. (专门性的)会议,讨论会。the conference on international economic problems met in geneva.关于世界经济问题的会议在日内瓦召开。congress n.代表大会,(美国的)国会。congress passes laws that must be obeyed by the people.美国国会通过的法律,人民一定要遵守。rally n. (鼓舞士气的)集会;群众性集会。the football coach called a rally to build up the team’s excitement for the next game.足球教练召开了一个动员会,以便鼓舞士气打好下次比赛。seminar n. (大学的)研究班,研讨会。during summer vacations some teachers attend seminars at college.暑假里,一些教师在学院里参加研究班。

session n. (一届)会议,回合。the autumn session of parliament议会的秋季会议summit n.最高级会议,峰会(通常为领导人参加)。next year, the summit will be held in vienna.明年将在维也纳举行最高级会谈。symposium n. (学术、科研方面的)座谈会,专题报告会。the symposium on sars research lasted two days.非典型性肺炎研究的研讨会持续了两天。30、assessment, estimate, evaluation有”评估”的意思。assessment n.评估,估价,常常表示对于财产、价值的评估。we have a low assessment on our property.我们对我们的资产评估很低。estimate n.估计,强调进行评估得出的结果,常与give搭配。the mechanic gave me a rough estimate of two or three hundred dollars for the repairs to my car.机械师给我的汽车修理费的粗略估计是200或300美元。evaluation n. (对于能力,价值、工作业绩的)评价,估价,常带有肯定的、正确的含义。he gave a positive evaluation of our scientific research.他对于我们的科学研究给予了积极的评价。

32、average, common, general, universal, usual这一组形容词都有”普通”的意思。average a.普通的,一般的,它强调的是一般水准或普通水准;通常在有数字出现的情况下,表示”平均的”。the average runner can run 2 miles in fifteen minutes.跑步者15分钟内平均跑两英里。common a.常见的,普通的,不足为奇的,有时引申为”平凡的”,强调事物的共同性。另外,它还有”公共的,共同的”之意。car accidents are a common occurrence.交通事故是很普通的事件。general a.普通的,一般的,表示涉及到各方面,强调整体性而非个别和例外,该词的反义词为particular。in general, the economy is doing well now.总的来说,现在的经济形式还不错。universal a.普遍的,比general语气更强,有”全然没有例外”的意思。poverty is a universal problem all over the world.贫困是世界各地普遍存在的问题。usual a.通常的,惯常的,强调”习惯性的,符合规章制度的”,是个一般用语。33、award, rewardaward v.指正式地或官方地颁发,授予,给予;也可以指法庭裁决给予。后面可跟双宾语。the school principal awarded a prize in history to the best student.学校校长将历史奖授予最出色的学生。reward v.酬劳,奖赏,回报,通常指因做了某一件事或提供了某种服务而应得到报酬或酬谢,其后一般以人或人的行为作宾语。后跟with用来说明以何物作为报酬。i will reward to the person who returns my lost dog.我将出50美元,酬谢帮我找回丢失的狗的人。34、aware, consciousaware a.知道的,意识到的,强调感官对外界事物的意识。he was aware of his mistake.他意识到自己的错误。conscious a.有意识的,意识到的,一般指内心所意识到的。the salesman is conscious of the fact that he must increase sales.销售员意识到他必须增加销售量。34、base, foundation, ground都有”基础”的意思。base n.指具体的有形的基础,也可指物体的底部、基部;基地,总部。they use their apartment in new york as a home base from which they travel frequently.他们把纽约的公寓作为他们频繁出行的大本营。

foundation n.本义指建筑物的地基,坚实的基础的意思;基金会。the foundation for our house is made of cement.我们房子的地基是水泥打下的。ground n.地面,土地,也指地域,水底,海底。35、basic, elementary, fundamentalbasic a.基本的,基础的,既可用于具体事物,也可用于抽象事物。he has a basic understanding of the problem.他对问题有基本的了解。elementary a.初步的,初级的。elementary school小学

fundamental a.根本性的,一般只用于抽象的事物;必要的,必须的。honesty is a fundamental principle in dealing with others.诚实是与别人相处的基本原则。36、beam, chuckle, giggle, grin, jeer, laugh, roar, sneer这一组都有”笑”的意思,而它们之间的差别也是明显的。beam v.本义指照耀,放光,引申为”微笑”,是正式用语,指面带喜悦或笑容,暗示对他人的友好或内心的满足。she beamed with happiness.她高兴得眉开眼笑。chuckle v. (书面语)吃吃的笑,抿嘴笑,轻声笑,多指因得意或领会到某事中的趣味而暗自发笑。she does not laugh out loud; she only chuckles.她没有笑出声来,只是抿嘴而笑。giggle v.咯咯地笑,痴笑,傻笑,多指女人和孩子由于紧张、被逗乐、尴尬时所发出的笑声。the schoolgirls giggled when the famous football player walked into their classroom.当这个著名的足球运动员走进教室时,女生们都咯咯地笑起来。grin v.露齿而笑,指人因高兴、满足、轻蔑等咧开嘴露齿地笑。he grinned at his mother.他冲他的妈妈咧嘴一笑。jeer v.讥笑,嘲笑,其同义词是mock。the crowd jeered when the boxer was knocked down.当那个拳手被人打倒时,人群开始嘲笑他。laugh v.笑,大笑,用于一般的笑或出声的大笑。roar v.怒吼,咆哮,引申为放声大笑,哄堂大笑。he roared when he heard the joke.听完这个笑话,他哈哈大笑。sneer v.冷笑,嘲笑,指以语言、表情、和声调表示轻蔑或嘲弄。he sneered at the offer and said it was two low.他对报价嗤之以鼻,说它太低了。

37、bewilder, puzzle, confuse, embarrass, perplex这一组词都有”迷惑”的意思。bewilder v.使困惑,使茫然,强调非常困惑,通常表现为心理和智力的紊乱,语气最重。he was fired without warning and is completely bewildered about the reason.他没有得到事先警告就被开除了,完全不明白是什么原因。when the farmers visited the city for the first time, they were bewildered by its complicated traffic system.当这些农夫们第一次到城里的时候,他们对城市复杂的交通系统感到迷惑不解。puzzle v.使迷惑,感到不解,强调不理解或解决不了。where the sunken treasure is puzzles explorers.沉没宝藏的下落令探险家们大惑不解。confuse v.使混乱,使糊涂,强调因混淆而使人产生迷乱。he sent the wrong reports because he confused them with other ones.他发错了报告,因为他把它们同另外一些报告混淆在一起了。embarrass v.使窘迫,使为难,使困惑,有令人不快、难为情和内心混乱的意味。her boyfriend embarrassed her by teasing her about her new hairstyle in front of others.她的男友在别人面前嘲笑她的新发型,使她感到难堪。perplex v.使杂乱,使疑虑,使不安。

the new tax laws perplex me.新税收法律使我很费解。38、blame, condemn, reproach, scold都有”责怪”的意思。blame v.责怪,把……归咎于。you can’t blame anyone in case you fail the exam.万一你考试不及格,你不能怪罪任何人。condemn v.谴责,用于比较正式的、严肃的场合。the wife condemned her husband for drinking too much.妻子因丈夫贪杯而责怪他。reproach v. (书面语)责备,表示不满。his teacher reproached him for not doing his homework.老师责备他不做作业。scold v.责骂,训斥。39、blunder, error, mistake这一组词都表示”错误”。blunder n. (因为无知、疏忽犯下的)大错,愚蠢的错误。i think that i committed a blunder in asking her because she seemed very upset by my question.这位女士由于我的问题感到很难过,我感觉到犯了一个大错。error n.指判断、计算或行为上的错误,也指智力或道义上的错误。

the accident was the result of human error.这事故是人为的错误造成的。mistake n.误会,误解;(粗心、遗忘所导致的)错误。i took your bag instead of mine by mistake.我错拿了你的手提包。40、brittle, fragile, frail, crisp, invalid都有”弱”的意思。brittle a.易碎的,易损坏的,通常是指坚硬的东西。the bones of elderly people become brittle and easily broken.老年人的骨头变得脆弱,很容易骨折。fragile a.常常修饰使用时必须小心才不会破碎的东西,也引申为体弱的,虚弱的。he ‘s feeling a bit fragile after last night’s party.他参加了昨晚的聚会以后,现在感觉有些虚弱。frail a. (指人)体弱的,虚弱的,也可以指东西易碎的。his mother has grown old and frail.他母亲已经年老体弱。crisp a.指食品的松脆;清新的,爽快的;活跃的,有生气的,干净利落的。  crisp biscuit松脆的饼干the student gave a clear, crisp answer to the teacher’s question.学生干净利落地回答了老师的问题。invalid a.不正确的,缺乏证据的;无效的,作废的。作名词时,表示病弱者,伤残者,久病者。your ideas about the first humans are interesting but invalid.你关于最早的人类的观点很有意思,但是缺乏证据。a bad car accident made him an invalid.一次严重的车祸使他变成了残疾。

41、boundary,border, frontier, rim, verge “边界”意思。boundary n.边界;界线。多指作为界线的标识物等。the fence marks the boundary between my land and hers.这道栅栏是我的地和她的地的分界线。

border n.较宽的边缘,边界,多指两国或两地之间的分界处附近的边缘地区、边界地带;也可以指物体的边缘等。we crossed the mexican border into the usa.我们穿过墨西哥边界进入美国境内。frontier n.边界,边境,边疆,指靠近边界(boundary)的区域;也可引申为”未开发的领域”,”(学术的)前沿”等。the american west was still a frontier a century ago.一个世纪以前美国西部还是一片边疆。she is a biochemist who works on the frontiers of biology.她是从事生物学前沿研究的生化学家。rim n.边,边缘,尤指圆形或近似圆形的物体的边缘。verge n. (道路、花坛等长草的)边缘,引申”某事即将发生之际”。on the verge of war战争爆发之际42、brief,concise, curt, succinct都有”简短的”意思。brief a.简明扼要的,简短的,指时间短暂,办事利索,态度明了等;有时含有”虽短但却不失全面”的意味。the manager made a brief statement to open the meeting.经理致了简短的开幕词。concise a. (文字等的)简要、精练,常含有保留主要部分的意思。his letter was concise,omitting everything not pertinent to the job.他的信写得简明扼要,省略掉了所有与该项工作无关的部分。curt a.三言两语的,简短的,常含有”草率”的意思。he asked his boss a question, but got a curt reply , “i have no time for you now!”他问老板一个问题,但是老板草率的说:”我没时间搭理你。”succinct a.简明的,简洁的,简练的,尤指用词简练,除含有concise的意思外,还有经过压缩的或简化的意思。succinct summary of the argument论点的概要43、bush,shrub, jungle这一组词均与树木有关。bush n.矮树丛。shrub n.有木茎的灌木,灌木丛。jungle n.热带稠密的雨林或丛林。

44、certify,rectify, testify, verify形近易混词。certify v.证明,声称是真的。he certified it was his wife’s handwriting.他证明那是他妻子的手迹。rectify v.改正,纠正;整顿。he rectified the mistake in the contract by changing its wording.他通过改变措辞纠正了合同里的错。testify v. (在法庭上)宣誓作证;表明。he is the only person who can testify in this case, because the other witnesses were killed mysteriously.其他的证人已经被神秘地杀害,他成为这件案例中唯一可以作证的人。verify v. (用事实)证实或核实。i verified the store’s address by calling to check it.我打电话询问,以核实商店的地址。45、compel,constrain, force, oblige都有”强迫”的意思。compel v.强迫,迫使,常表示运用权利、力量迫使对方做某事;有时也表示”别无办法,不得不做”。his illness compelled him to stay in bed.他的病迫使他卧床休息。constrain v.力劝,强迫,与compel意思相近,但更多强调内心情感(如道德、怜悯等)的强迫和限制作用,一般用于正式的场合。as an artist he didn’t consider himself constrained by the same rules of social conduct as other people.他认为自己是艺术家,不必象一般人那样要受到社会行为准则的约束。force v.强迫,迫使,暴力威胁的意味较浓,常用于被动语态。the thief forced her to hand over the money.强盗逼迫她把钱交出来。oblige v. (因法律、习俗等)强迫,迫使,常常用于被动。we are obliged to stop the car at a red light.我们遇到红灯时必须停车。46、complaint,disorder这两个词都有”疾病”的意思。complaint n.疾病(主要指病人去看病时向医生描述的病症,既可以是小病、慢性病,也可以是传染性疾病);抱怨,埋怨,不满。a heart complaint心脏病disorder n. (精神或肉体的)疾病(着重于身心、机能的失调、不平衡);骚乱,动乱;混乱,杂乱。a disorder of the digestive system消化系统疾病47、complement,supplement,append”补充”complement n.补充,补充物,主要指补充不足使之完美。

45、rice makes an excellent complement to a curry dish.有咖喱的菜配米饭最棒。supplement n.增补,补充,补贴,主要指另外补加,增补。one year after we made our report, we had to add a supplement to cover new events.我们在报告完成一年之后,必须增补一个包含新事件的附加部分。append n.附加,添上或补充某事物(尤指文字)。the lawyer appended two more pages to the contract.律师在合同后又附加了两页。48、component,element, factor, ingredient”组成成分”component n.零部件;(某事物的)组成部分;成分。tires, the engine, the body, and the seats are component of a car.轮胎,引擎,车身以及坐椅都是一辆汽车的零部件。element n.元素;组成部分,方面;某特定的人或群体,分子。the elements hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water.氢元素和氧元素构成了水。he belongs to a bad element in this city.他属于这个城市的坏分子。factor n.因素,要素,侧重指原因。endurance is an important factor in success in sports.耐力是体育比赛成功的一个重要因素。ingredient n.原料,成分,要素。flour, milk, butter and yeast are some ingredients in bread.面粉、牛奶、黄油和酵母是做面包的一些原料。49、comprise,compose, consist, constitute, include这一组动词都有”组成,包含”的意思。comprise v.包含,包括,由……组成(整体);组成,构成。our company’s product line comprises 2,500 different items.我们公司的生产线是由2,500个不同的组成部分构成的。compose v.构成(整体),组成;由……组成(后接of,常用于被动语态);创作(作曲、诗歌等)。the committee was composed mainly of teachers and parents.委员会主要由教师和学生家长组成。consist v.组成,构成,由……组成(后接of,常用于主动语态);(后接in)在于,存在于。the problem consists of two parts.问题由两部分组成。the beauty of the plan consists in its simplicity.这计划的好处就在于简单易行。constitute v.构成,组成(整体)。crime and illegal drugs constitute the city’s major problems.犯罪和非法毒品买卖是这个城市面临的主要问题。

include v.包括,包含,把……列入。the conference delegates included representatives from abroad.大会代表中有来自海外的代表。50、concentrate,focus都有”集中”的意思。concentrate v.集中,集中精力(后接on,宾语可以是具体或抽象的东西);浓缩,压缩。during exams, students concentrate hard on answering the questions.考试期间,同学们集中精力回答问题。focus v.集中(于某事物);将(注意力等)集中于……(后接on,宾语一般不是具体的东西)。please focus your minds on the following problem.请集中考虑以下问题。

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